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Topographic Labeling of Glans Penis and Corpus Spongiosum When Planning Surgery for Distal Hypospadia.
Author Seleim H in Devepress Open access Journal
Eyes donâ€™t see if brain does not know holds true in hypospadias. Every details is available on the hypospadias penis. Authors have depicted the same the article with surface marking of the land marks. The same has been presented my presentation webinars of Paediatric urology on spongioplasty and chordee and are under publication. The land marks are not only for the meatus and spongiosum but also the bifurcation of midline raphae, prominence of spongiosal pillars but also the dorsal Bulls eye midline skin colour. All these land marks depicts the embryological events .
Authors have touched the theory of the development of distal urethra showing it as a tubularization rather than invagination. The whole gist of the repair is spongioplasty only. Based on it he has done spongioplasty only with the concept of epithelization of the ventral deficit urethral plate.
He neither incised the urethral not raised the glanular wings and glanuloplasty. And did not interposing healthy tissue cover. Author have not mobilized the spongiosum before spongioplasty.
In my opinion the dorsal epithelization after incising the urethral plate is better than the ventral epithelization of spongiosal plate. Spongioplasty without mobilization of spongiosum is likely to under tension and have the chances of dehiscence. Again the delayed epithelization or non-epithelization of spongiosal plate may lead to fistula . Approximated margins epithelize better.
As far for interposing heathy interposing heathy tissue author donâ€™t mobilize the dorsal dartos but in my opinion using the ventral dartos with the skin. The ventral dartos is equally good and we had been using the same since vey long and published in Journal of paediatric urology.( Bhat et al JPU PDF attached ).
Bhat hyppospadias and reconstructive Urology hospital and research center.
Figure 1 Showing the site of Dorsal hood and bifurcation of median raphae Depicting the embryological event .ie severity of hypospadias .
Comparison of variables affecting the
surgical outcomes of tubularized incised
plate urethroplasty in adult and pediatric
A. Bhat, M. Bhat, V. Kumar, R. Kumar, R. Mittal, G. Saksena
Journal of Pediatric Urology (2016) 12, 108.e1e108.e7
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends
operating on hypospadias between the ages of 6e12
months. Since most births in developed countries
are conducted in a hospital, parents are likely to be
well informed and counseled about the hypospadias.
However, significant numbers of births in developing
countries are still conducted at home, with illiter-
acy, poverty and ignorance often leading to late
presentation at the hospital. Reported hypospadias-
repair complication rates are higher in adults
compared with those having surgery in childhood.
The present studyâ€™s objective was to evaluate the
factors affecting surgical outcome in hypospadias
patients undergoing tubularized and tubularized
incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU) in adulthood
compared with childhood.
Materials and methods
A prospective study of 60 adult patients >16 years,
and 60 pediatric patients <5 years who underwent
TIPU for primary hypospadias between May 2008
and May 2012. Patients were operated on by a
single surgeon, under similar circumstances, and
were pre-operatively examined to assess meatal
location, chordee, and torsion; they were also
examined intra-operatively for quality of spongio-
sum and urethral plate width. The outcomes were
assessed by patient/parents for satisfaction
regarding cosmesis, urinary stream and
The age of the patients varied from 16 to 27 years,
with a mean of 20.8 years in adults, and 6 months to
5 years, with a mean of 2.1 years, in children. The
type of hypospadias, degree of curvature, quality of
spongiosum and urethral plate width were compa-
rable in both groups, but complication rates were
higher in adults (16.7%) than in the pediatric (6.7%)
group (Figure 1AeD). Meatal stenosis responded well
to dilatation, but fistulae required revision surgery
and had a cure rate of 100%. The median follow-up
was 37 months in adults, and 39 months in children.
The higher complication rates in adults may be due
to more frequent erections; increased susceptibility
to infection along with relatively reduced vascu-
larity lead to poor wound healing and increased
complication rates. The limitation of the study was
the small number of patients with mid and proximal
hypospadias having lesser incidences in comparison
with distal hypospadias. Adequate number of pa-
tients in these subgroups could have further
strengthened the statistical correlation. Secondly,
there was no objective criterion like uroflowmetry
to assess urinary stream.
Complication rates were higher in adults undergoing
TIPU compared with pediatric patients, which was
also statistically significant in distal hypospadias.
The important factors in surgical outcome were:
severity of hypospadias, degree of curvature, quality
of spongiosum, and urethral plate width.
Ventral dartos cover
Although different surgical procedures have been performed over the previous decades, lots of knowledge is lacking in hypospadiology. However, strong efforts are recently pushing towards objective classification, algorithm-based management and standardization. This article talking about the details of topographical landmarks is a real example on this pathway. One of the most important steps in the repair is to objectively categorize the different variables of the anatomical phenotypes of this anomaly from which Urethral plate is considered of high importance. (1) We have developed the plate objective scoring tool (POST) as a reproducible, and potentially objective approach to categorize Urethral plate quality. (2) Every effort should be paid to standardize other variable like measurement of penile curvature and extent of urethral hypoplasia in order to achieve a consistent plan and reliable communication.